Cap or diaphragm

What the packet says

What is the Cap or diaphragm?

What's it made of?

A contraceptive diaphragm or cap is a circular dome made of thin, soft silicone. You need to use it with a gel that kills sperm called spermicide. The most common active ingredient of spermicides is nonoxynol-9

How the Cap or diaphragm works

A contraceptive diaphragm or cap is a small reusable circular dome made of soft silicone that is inserted into the vagina before sex. It is covered in spermicide (a gel that kills sperm) and prevents pregnancy by covering the cervix so sperm can’t get into the womb.

Cap or diaphragm side effects

  • Vaginal Discharge


  • During intercourse
  • Daily
  • Monthly
  • 1 - 3 Months
  • 1 - 3 Years
  • 3 - 5 Years
  • Permanent
  • Clinical effectiveness



    Contains hormones


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    Detailed information

    How to get started

    • You need to go to your doctor or nurse to get fitted for a cap or diaphragm and it can take some time to learn how to use them.
    • They normally advise you wait until at least six weeks after having a baby before having a diaphragm or cap. You can have them after a miscarriage or abortion, but you may need to get a different size fitted.
    • Your doctor or nurse may give you a temporary cap or diaphragm to practice with at home, and will show you how to put in. You’ll need to go back to see them so they can check it’s the right size and that you can put it in properly. Whilst you practice you won’t be protected against pregnancy.
    • To insert a cap and diaphragm, you will be shown how to put spermicide on it, and to squeeze it between your finger and up inside yourself. It’s important to check that your cervix is covered.
    • You need to make sure you don’t remove the cap or the diaphragm for at least six hours after the last time you had sex. You can leave them in up to 24 hours. After six hours has passed, you remove the cap or diaphragm by hooking your finger under its rim, loop or strap and gently pulling it down and out.
    • They are reusable – read the instructions for how to wash and look after it.
    • Most women can use the same diaphragm or cap for a year before they need to replace it. You may need a different size if you gain or lose more than 3kg in weight, or have had a baby.

    How to stop

    • Stopping using cap or diaphragms is easy, you just don’t insert one before you have sex.
    • In general they have little to no after effects, but check out our survey results to see what others have experienced.

    Things that can go wrong

    • The most common thing that can go wrong is that the cap doesn’t cover your cervix because it’s the wrong size or doesn’t fit properly. You may also accidentally remove the diaphragm or cap too soon – less than six hours after you had sex. If these things happen you may need to use emergency contraception.
    • There is a small chance you could develop toxic shock syndrome if the cap or diaphragm is left in for several days. This happens at a rate of 2.4 cases per 100,000 women using diaphragms, when it is left in for more than 24 hours.
    • Some women can be more likely to develop cystitis, bladder infections or bacterial vaginosis when they use a cap or diaphragm. If this happens your doctor or nurse can check the size as changing it to a smaller size may help.
    • Like condoms, quite a lot of things can make diaphragms and caps less effective – these include
      • If it gets damaged or has holes in it
      • You don’t use spermicide or extra spermicide when you use it or have more sex
      • You have sex three hours or more after you put it in and don’t use extra spermicide
      • Some oil based products (like oils and lotions) can damage latex based diaphragms or caps.



    Cap or diaphragm
    Fiddly and a faff. Didn’t bother a couple of times and ended up pregnant. He’s nearly 20 now and I’m still marrie...
    Cap or diaphragm
    I was only using it shortly, as I wanted to avoid hormones. It was not bad, but the need of using a spermicide as well w...
    Cap or diaphragm
    Tried the pill in my early 20s but didn’t like the side effects, felt generally unwell and slightly “down” while t...
    Cap or diaphragm
    After bad experiences with the pill I wanted to avoid hormonal contraception, and did not think the coil was right for m...
    Cap or diaphragm
    As someone who has struggled with more mainstream contraception, this was a miracle. Zero side effects and non-invasive!...
    Cap or diaphragm
    An oldie here! I was first fitted with a Cap (can’t recall the brand) when I was 27. I had been married for just o...